Layer 4

Ingenuity and Tradition: Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands

Today, body ink, piercings, and unusual hairstyles are common fashion choices.  Through the 18th century, however, ritual tattooing, the decoration of ears and noses, and hair ornamentation were visual representations of some of the values and traditions of indigenous Iroquois and Algonquian peoples. By exploring these practices, as well as the development and utilization of handmade tools and weapons, hunting and farming practices, food preparation and preservation, and clothing production, we can better understand the effective use of resources, cultural expectations, and belief systems of the proud people who once controlled Pennsylvania and whose traditions continue into the present day.



Essential Questions:

How did early Native American tribes live in Pennsylvania?
What similarities/differences existed among the tribes?
What caused conflicts among the tribes?
How did the contributions of Native Americans and early settlers influence Pennsylvania?
What were the contributions of the early Native Americans in Pennsylvania?
What influence did the environment and other cultures have on early American civilizations?
How does early Native American use of resources show their attitude about resources?
How did early Native American civilizations change when they came in contact with other cultures?
How did abundance and types of resources affect Native American culture?
What effects did cooperation and conflict have on neighboring cultures?

History Standards: 8.1 A,B,C,D   8.2.3 A,B,C,D    8.2.6 A,B,C,D   8.3.3 A,B,C,D8.3.6 A,B, D.

Reading Standards:
1.1.5.A,G  1.2.A 1.3.A,F  1.6.A,B,D,E

“The props you brought in really made me have a better idea of what it was like. One thing I really enjoyed was the costumes. Also, I thought it was really cool how you got everyone involved in your speech. I also liked how you were talking to us with a sense of humor and in our language. It is a true honor to hear you speak. Hopefully, I will be able to hear you speak next year.”
         Sidney J.